Nama : Egan Elian Noer
Class : 01 PBT
NIM : 1601218483
This assignment is given by Mr Tri Djoko Wahjono
I. Review Answer
1. In what year was Plankalkül designed? In what year was that design published?
Answer: Plankalkul was designed by Konrad Zuse between 1942 & 1945. He first published a paper on it in 1948. More information on the language was published in 1972.
2. What two common data structures were included in Plankalkül?
Answer: Array and Records
3. How were the pseudo codes of the early 1950s implemented?
They were implemented through machine codes.
4. Speedcoding was invented to overcome two significant shortcomings of the computer hardware of the early 1950s. What were they?
Answer: Non-connotative names, absolute addressing (Also: floating-point arithmetic, automatic incrementing of address register).
5. Why was the slowness of interpretation of programs acceptable in the early 1950s?
Answer: Because the lack of floating point hardware
6. What hardware capability that first appeared in the IBM 704 computer strongly affected the evolution of programming languages? Explain why.
Answer: Its capabilities prompted the development of Fortran because it was able to support floating-point operations hardware.
7. In what year was the Fortran design project begun?
Answer: May 1954
8. What was the primary application area of computers at the time Fortran was designed?
9. What was the source of all of the control flow statements of Fortran I?
Answer: They were based on 704 instructions
10. What was the most significant feature added to Fortran I to get Fortran II?
Answer: Independent-compilation capability
11. What control flow statements were added to Fortran IV to get Fortran 77?
Answer: logical loop statements and IF with an optional ELSE
12. Which version of Fortran was the first to have any sort of dynamic variables?
Answer: Fortran 90
13. Which version of Fortran was the first to have character string handling?
Answer: Fortran 77
14. Why were linguists interested in artificial intelligence in the late 1950s?
Answer: Because linguists were concerned with natural language processing.
15. Where was LISP developed? By whom?
Answer: It was developed at MIT by John McCarthy
16. In what way are Scheme and Common LISP opposites of each other?
Answer: Common LISP allows for static scoping and dynamic scoping Scheme only uses static scoping. Scheme is relatively small while Common LISP is large and complex.
17. What dialect of LISP is used for introductory programming courses at some universities?
18. What two professional organizations together designed ALGOL 60?
Answer: ACM and GAMM
19. In what version of ALGOL did block structure appear?
Answer: ALGOL 60
20. What missing language element of ALGOL 60 damaged its chances for widespread use?
Answer: The lack of input and output statements with formatting
21. What language was designed to describe the syntax of ALGOL 60?
22. On what language was COBOL based?
23. In what year did the COBOL design process begin?
1. Do you believe that solving a problem in a particular algorithmic step requires programming language skills? Support your opinion.
answer : No I don’t think people will need programming language skills, because algorithmic steps already existed long before programming language.
2. Who is said to be the first programmer in human history?
answer : Ada Lovelace is said to be the first programmer in the world. Her notes on the engine is the first algorithm intended to be understand by computer.
4 . In what way do the languages for scientific applications differ from the languages for business applications? Support your view.
answer : Language for scientific applications are intended for scientific calculations which includes uncommon mathematical operation. While for business they usually includes function that ease the business computation.
6. Which characteristics of programming languages do you think are the most important and why?
answer : I think the object oriented characteristic is the most important because that way, when you finished a program, you can reuse the code once again to make another program.
7. Java uses a semicolon to mark the end of all statements. What are the advantages for and against this design?
answer : A semicolon marks the end of all statements is somehow important for the purpose of readability and to prevent logic error.